Distinctive peculiarities of interplanetary space flights
It is possible to single out the following principle differences of an autonomous interplanetary flight from an orbital flight that must be in this or that way realized during ground-based simulation of a manned Martian expedition:
- Impossibility of additional delivery of resources (food; water; atmosphere purification means; energy; apparatus, equipment and spare parts; clothes, footwear, bed linen; medical aid means, medications; sanitary hygiene means; information sources).
- Impossibility of receiving help from Earth, including urgent return to Earth.
- Self-management of the crew in conditions of decreased operational and social control from Earth, presupposing:
- self-control of the whole life activity of the crew, including control of the state of health, psychological state and working capacity;
- independent decisions taking;
- independent solving of appearing problems.
- Limitation in operative receiving of information from Earth (signal passage delay, limitation of communication volume).
- Landing on the new planet and interaction of two groups performing different functions – the one that lands, and the one that stays on orbit.
- Specificity of of-nominal situations:
- deficit or complete absence of the necessary resource;
- complete absence of communication with Earth;
- complete or partial loss of working capacity of separate crew members in connecting with illness, injury, conflict;
- disorder of interpersonal interaction due to unsolvable conflict.